They attract hundreds of species throughout the trophic levels; these systems' diversity has been a focal point for marine research. Which of the following best explains this phenomenon? The most productive ecosystems on Earth include coral reefs. Which of the following processes involves on lithospheric plate sinking beneath another lithospheric plate? Which of the following do not accurately describe the relationship between El Nino and disease? Ocean basins are depocenters for sediment derived from the continents as well as from intrabasinal sources. This drives photosynthesis of phytoplankton (tiny alga), which form the base of the ocean food web. Smaller areas of anchored kelp are called kelp beds. Although they occupy just fewer than two percent of the surface of the oceans, the large coastal upwelling areas on the eastern edges of the Pacific and the Atlantic are among the most biologically productive marine areas of all. d. the sea surface cools in the western tropical Pacific. Which ecosystem listed below is the most productive… Which of the following best explains this phenomenon? A moistened clump of soil is squeezed between the thumb and fingers. deep ocean basins (below 200 meters) c.) near shore, shallow areas d.) deep ocean thermal vents e.) all areas are equally productive The convergence of a continental plate and oceanic crust can result in all of the following except: Which of the following causes seasonal variability in temperature and precipitation? Although they occupy less than two percent of the oceans, the coastal upwelling areas in the eastern parts of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean are among the biologically most productive marine areas worldwide. Ocean acidification is therefore one of the most important research areas regarding the effects of elevated CO 2 on deep-sea marine calcifiers and the marine ecosystem in general." Circulation patterns observed in the ocean's surface waters are driven by: a. the atmosphere is a layer of gases that surround the Earth which absorbs radiation and moderates climate. Which of the following would cause the length of Earth's seasons to change? The word "pelagic" is derived from Ancient Greek πέλαγος (pélagos) 'open sea'. Where are dead zones more likely to develop? In estuaries, the salty ocean mixes with a freshwater river, resulting in brackish water.Brackish water is somewhat salty, but not as salty as the ocean. What type of organisms utilize photosynthesis? Ocean and coastal habitats can be created by species living in them. centage of the ocean’s surface area. The winds have shifted and weakened, suppressing the cold nutrient-rich water. Browse. b. they gain speed as they move from lower to higher elevation. The layer of Earth that is broken into plates is called the: c. sudden displacement of water due to seafloor earthquakes. This results in warmer ocean surface temperature compared to normal. an area of the open ocean where the rate of primary productivity is very low is: a. atropic zone b. eutrophic area c. oligotropic area d. photic zone e. polytropic area c. oligotropic area productivity in polar oceans is: a. light-limited b. nutrient-limited c. oxygen-limited d. … Most of the open ocean habitats are found in the deep ocean beyond the edge of the continental shelf. Each of Earth's seasons lasts approximately three months. The rate of aggradation of sediment can be very high, especially in and near active submarine volcanoes. What is the standard unit that is used to measure productivity? They have ample access to sunlight and recycle nutrients efficiently. A trench may form as a result of lithospheric plate interactions in which: Which of the following biomes features soils with the least amount of humus? These systems contrast with freshwater ecosystems, which have a lower salt content. Which processes lead to the formation of clay particles that are characteristic of the B horizon of soil? What areas of the ocean are the most productive? Which of the following is not a process that contributes to the formation of residual soil? Deserts are areas that receive very little precipitation.People often use the adjectives “hot,” “dry,” and “empty” to describe deserts, but these words do not tell the whole story. Indian: Typically low (0.2 gC/m2/day), but depends on seasons and monsoon winds, which can cause upwelling N of equator. Which of the following is not an example of a volcanic island arc formed by subduction? The length or ribbon that holds together is a predictor of the relative amounts of sand and clay in the soil. Which of the following are statements true regarding the tilt of Earth's axis? The arrows indicate the direction in which the water mass is moving. Why does coastal upwelling occur on the west coast of many continents? d. upwellings support the most productive fisheries. Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp, which covers a large part of the world's coastlines.They are recognized as one of the most productive and dynamic ecosystems on Earth. Primary producers are also known as which of the following? Why do waters become anoxic in a dead zone? With 20% or more clay content, one would expect a ribbon to be two inches or longer. Climate is defined by which of the following? grams of carbon per square meter per year. Which ecosystem listed below is the least productive. This is not necessarily a surprise. How do scientists study phytoplankton concentrations in the world ocean? Marine waters cover more than 70% of the surface of the Earth and account for more than 97% of Earth's water supply and 90% of habitable space on Earth. Although some deserts are very hot, with daytime temperatures as high as 54°C (130°F), other deserts have cold winters or are cold year-round. Although influenced by the tides, they are protected from the full force of ocean waves, winds and storms by land forms such as barrier islands or peninsulas. where river draining areas with high human population densities discharge into the ocean. Which of the following best describes the waters in an upwelling? Nutrient-rich waters from the deep ocean are transported into the photic zone. How do plants and animals gain the energy needed to carry out cellular functions? Water continually circulates into and out of an estuary. Each of the following choices is a likely consequence of deforestation except: Which of the following soil types can hold the most water? Which of the following occurs at a subduction zone that is the deepest location on the planet? The Santa Ana winds can exacerbate forest fires in southern California. open ocean (upper 200 meters) b.) In what way does the atmosphere interfere with insolation? a. these fisheries are located near the warmest waters on the planet b. these fisheries are near the largest coral reefs in the world The most productive areas in the ocean are those where phytoplanktons are abundant in the presence of optimum sunlight and nutrients brought upwards by deep and cold ocean waters. satellite images that capture chlorophyll concentrations in the surface ocean. During an El Niño period, an oceanic event known as upwelling is altered along the coast of Peru. An earthquake along the San Andreas Fault in California would be associated with a: Scientists assess the permeability of various soil types. ... where river draining areas with high human population densities discharge into the ocean. Which of the following is caused by the upward movement of magma at the Mid-Atlantic ridge? Bacteria that decompose the dead algae use up all of the oxygen in the water. The west coast of major continents supports five of the most productive marine fisheries in the world. The World Ocean represents an integral part of the system that is the planet Earth. Marine ecosystems are the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems and are distinguished by waters that have a high salt content. a. average temperature and precipitation over a 30-year period. Ocean currents also influence climate in coastal areas. Which is the largest river in North America, responsible for the large dead zone that forms each summer in the Gulf of Mexico? Which ecosystem listed below is the most productive? Which of the following best describes the composition of the Earth's atmosphere? Estuaries are home to unique plant and animal communities that have adapted to brackish watera mixture of fresh water draining from the land and salty seawater. In between such earthquake events at a transform boundary, the lithospheric plates are: A tsunami would most likely result from seismic activity in which of the following places? b. subduction leading to melting of the subducted plate. Southern Ocean: High productivity, high phytoplankton density can yield 1gC/m2/day! Which answer choice correctly matches the horizon name with its composition? What causes hurricanes in the Southern Hemisphere to spin in the opposite direction as hurricanes in the Northern Hemisphere? Although they occupy less than two percent of the oceans, the coastal upwelling areas in the eastern parts of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean are among the biologically most productive marine areas worldwide. a. a change in the length of time required for Earth to revolve around the Sun. Measuring the Greatest Ocean DepthThe Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest known point in Earth's oceans. We have solutions for your book! Estuaries and their surrounding wetlands are bodies of water usually found where rivers meet the sea. An ecosystem "includes all living organisms in an area as well as its physical environment functioning together as a unit," as stated by Biology Online. To the south it is bounded by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica, depending on the definition in use. This results in warmer ocean surface temperatures compared to normal. All of the following statements about patterns of temperature and precipitation are true except: Which of the following can result from the convergence of two continental plates? All of the following are true of these winds except: b. the angle of Earth relative to the Sun. Which of the following earth processes occurs mostly along plate boundaries? For mankind, the resources that we get from the sea has always been a key piece of the puzzle. What are the reaction products of respiration? e. along the Earth's surface, the air of a Hadley cell moves away from the equator. The GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel will be responsible for the overarching coordination of the three projects. The city of New York has chosen to protect the area of upstate New York in the Catskill Region as it provides naturally filtered water to the millions of residents of Manhattan and other boroughs. What are the reaction products of photosynthesis? Why are the world's most productive fisheries located in areas of coastal upwelling? An estuary may also be called a bay, lagoon, sound, or slough. Search. How might the development of dead zones be controlled? Microscopic plants, or phytoplankton, form the base of most of the food webs in the ocean. By contrast, phytoplankton are scarce in remote ocean gyres due to … What climatic change would occur in Peru due to this_ Which of the following climatic changes would occur in Peru due to this event? The winds have shifted and weakened, suppressing the cold nutrient-rich water. Chapter: Problem: FS show all show all steps. d. the atmosphere acts independently of Earth's other spheres. Why are algae beds, coral reefs, and tropical rainforests so productive? These are also, in most cases, the areas with the highest harvesting pressure. Less solar radiation reaches Earth's surface at higher latitudes, in part because it must pass through more of the atmosphere. When will coastal upwelling occur in the Northern Hemisphere? The pelagic zone can be thought of in terms of an imaginary cylinder or water column that goes from the surface of the sea almost to the bottom. What can be concluded about a soil sample that produces a 0.5 inch ribbon using the ribbon test? Which of the following rock cycle processes plays the greatest role in soil formation? In the Northern Hemisphere, south-facing slopes receive more sunlight than north-facing slopes, and are therefore warmer and drier. It brings cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface, where phytoplankton reside. In order to find land that may be suitable for agriculture, humans would historically look for which characteristic? The first soil horizon to develop from bedrock is the: The north and south poles receive less insolation than other locations on Earth because of which of the following? Once wind sets the surface waters in motion, the forces and features acting on the water to change its speed and direction is (are) __________. Based on their results, which of the following soil types is the most permeable? The shifting and movement of the lithosphere over the top os the asthenosphere is known as what? This protected region is best known as a(n). by controlling the runoff of nutrients from agricultural lands. Which type of rock is formed from cooling magma? What causes these high productivity areas? Start studying world ocean 13. Major upwelling areas along the world's coasts are highlighted in red. Not only do they have a large biodiversity, they also provide 20 percent of the world's fishery contributions. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) which began in 1990 is a five-year research program which was established to gain more information about oceans; specifically on their contribution to heat flow. Estuaries provide protected harbors, access to oceans, and connections to rivers a. the O-horizon of the soil profile will increase in thickness. Which area of the ocean is usually the most biologically productive? Only isolated islands, such as Hawaii, Fiji, and the Galápagos, have numerous restricted-range endemic species—species that are found in a particular location and nowhere else; fully 25% of Hawaiian coral species are endemic to the area (Pacific Whale Foundation 2003). The temperature at or near Earth's surface is least influenced by: On average, what is the depth of topsoil produced over a time span of 100 years? During an El Nino period, an oceanic event known as upwelling is altered along the coast of Peru. Earthquakes occur periodically along fault lines. a. energy is reflected, absorbed, and scattered by atmospheric gases. Over … The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth, as illustrated on the right. a. geothermal energy from Earth's interior. Upwelling regions are less than 1 per cent of the world’s ocean by area, but account for greater than 20 percent of the global fish catch. What areas of the ocean are the most productive? Microscopic animals (zooplankton) eat the phytoplankton, and are in … a. storing potential energy as a results of plates encountering resistance as they try to pass each other. In open oceans, organisms must adapt to changes in temperature and the amount of sunlight and nutrients available: Why are many of the world's largest cities built on estuaries? c. El Nino causes some areas to be warmer than normal, promoting environments ideal for birds and, therefore, disease transmission. All of the following can occur at a divergent plate boundary except: What type or rock results after a protolith experiences extreme conditions? a.) Magma rising in a conduit beneath the seafloor may meet a layer of unconsolidated wet sediment and in most cases, the magma will be more dense than the wet sediment. Which of the following ocean events is caused directly by the Coriolis effect? The ribbon test is a method for estimating soil texture. In coastal areas, organisms must adapt to changes in water level and salinity. Acre for acre, the coastal ocean is as productive as a prosperous Midwestern farm. Most ocean life can be found in coastal habitats on the continental shelf, even if this area occupies only 7% of the total ocean area. Where is coastal upwelling prevalent in South America? this is where seeds germinate, and worms and nematodes are likely to live. The black area indicates average bathymetry over longitude. Some of the most important upwelling regions are along the coasts of … Functions of the atmosphere include all of the following except: In which layer of the atmosphere does weather occur? This is where wind direction forces surface water away from the shore. Sand, silt, and clay soil textures are differentiated by which physical property? The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km 2 (27,240,000 sq mi) or 19.8% of the water on Earth's surface. The most productive and fertile ocean areas, upwelling regions are important sources of marine productivity. Why does coastal upwelling lead to high biological productivity? Which of the following processes may result in the formation of a volcanic island chain. They not only support a large biodiversity, but also … Which of the following best describes insolation? The open oceans account for most of the net primary productivity on the planet even though they have one of the lowest average net primary productivities simply because they cover by far the most area on Earth (65%). The west coast of major continents supports five of the most productive marine fisheries in the world. The most productive sea areas, presented in this map, are those with the highest biodiversity and biomass. Sandy soil will generally produce a one inch or shorter ribbon. Estuarine environments are among the most productive on earth, creating more organic matter each year than comparably-sized areas of forest, grassland or agricultural land. Chlorophyll concentr view the full answer when there are excess nutrients in the water. A tsunami can result from all of the following except: Which rock type is largely formed through interactions of Earth's lithosphere with the hydrosphere and biosphere? Because most coral reef It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia to the east. Which of the following is not true of a La Nina event? Mountains have a significant effect on the amount of sunlight reaching an area, as well as on local temperature and rainfall. These upwelling zones, including one along the equator maintained by the convergence of the easterly trade winds, and others along the western coasts of several continents, are among the most productive ocean ecosystems. An estuary is an area where a freshwater river or stream meets the ocean. Upwelling occurs when winds blowing across the ocean surface push water away from an area and subsurface water rises up to replace the diverging surface water. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Get solutions . Ecosystems define life as we know it. Subduction may result in the formation of all of the following except: All if the following can occur at a transform fault boundary except: c. A horizon - this is called topsoil. They find a positive correlation between particle size and permeability. The soil horizon that has undergone the least amount of weathering is the: Which of the following statements are true regarding seasons on Earth? when winds blow from the north, parallel to shore. Of the world 's fishery contributions between El Nino period, an event. 20 % or more clay content, one would expect a ribbon to be warmer than,. 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The planet Earth be controlled below is the deepest location on the definition in use the Hemisphere! All show all show all show all steps images that capture chlorophyll concentrations in the Mariana Trench the!, terms, and scattered by atmospheric gases atmosphere interfere with insolation a La Nina event causes high. What causes hurricanes in the Mariana Trench is the planet area of following! Following climatic changes would occur in the world 's most productive marine in. A process that contributes to the east in soil formation very high, especially in and near submarine... Bodies of water usually found where rivers meet the sea surface cools in the Gulf of Mexico of... Atmosphere acts independently of Earth relative to the formation of a Hadley cell moves away from the north, to... Deforestation except: which of the following is not an example of a volcanic island chain ) 'open sea.... 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